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        Super-long span bridges demand high design requirements and involve many difficulties when constructed, which is an important indicator to reflect the bridge technical level of a country. Over the past three decades, a large percentage of the new long-span bridges around the world were built in China, and thus, abundant technological innovations and experience have been accumulated during the design and construction. This paper aims to review and summarize the design and construction practices of the superstructure, the substructure, and the steel deck paving of the long-span bridges during the past decades as well as the current operation status of the existing long-span bridges in China. A future perspective was given on the developing trend of high-speed railway bridge, bridge over deep-sea, health monitoring and maintenance, intellectualization, standard system, and information technology, which is expected to guide the development direction for the construction of future super long-span bridges and promote China to become a strong bridge construction country.

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        The wave of “digital age” featuring digital information is coming. Digital technology is profoundly changing the societal development direction and evolution paths. It also has significant bearing on production modes, social interactions and lifestyles. With regard to urban design, a system of knowledge about the creation and adaptation of material space forms that integrate humanities, art, technology and materials, digital technology has provided it with a brand-new and revolutionary scientific impetus for its evolution. The result of this evolution is “digital urban design paradigm based on human-computer interaction”, i.e., the urban development is moving toward “pan-dimensionality” and “individual ubiquity”. The future of urban design will construct a new approach to urban research and engineering, which is more complex, capable of accommodating and compatible with multiple goals of “instrumental rationality” and “value rationality”. Such a new approach shall be led by the probabilistic theory of “gray scale thinking”, reflecting quaternary synergetic view of “scientific rationality, ecological rationality, cultural rationality and technical rationality” to realize the cognitive progress of “engineering for the benefit of mankind”.

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        Reinforced concrete beams consisting of both steel and glass-fiber-reinforced polymer rebars exhibit excellent strength, serviceability, and durability. However, the fatigue shear performance of such beams is unclear. Therefore, beams with hybrid longitudinal bars and hybrid stirrups were designed, and fatigue shear tests were performed. For specimens that failed by fatigue shear, all the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer stirrups and some steel stirrups fractured at the critical diagonal crack. For the specimen that failed by the static test after 8 million fatigue cycles, the static capacity after fatigue did not significantly decrease compared with the calculated value. The initial fatigue level has a greater influence on the crack development and fatigue life than the fatigue level in the later phase. The fatigue strength of the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer stirrups in the specimens was considerably lower than that of the axial tension tests on the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer bar in air and beam-hinge tests on the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer bar, and the failure modes were different. Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer stirrups were subjected to fatigue tension and shear, and failed owing to shear.

        ,   et al.
        The effective notch stress approach for evaluating the fatigue strength of rib–deck welds requires notch stress concentration factors obtained from complex finite element analysis. To improve the efficiency of the approach, the notch stress concentration factors for three typical fatigue-cracking modes (i.e., root–toe, root–deck, and toe–deck cracking modes) were thoroughly investigated in this study. First, we developed a model for investigating the effective notch stress in rib–deck welds. Then, we performed a parametric analysis to investigate the effects of multiple geometric parameters of a rib–deck weld on the notch stress concentration factors. On this basis, the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis was performed to obtain the optimal regression functions for predicting the notch stress concentration factors. Finally, we employed the proposed formulas in a case study. The notch stress concentration factors estimated from the developed formulas show agree well with the finite element analysis results. The results of the case study demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed formulas. It also shows that the fatigue design curve of FAT225 seems to be conservative for evaluating the fatigue strength of rib–deck welds.

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